University of Denver

Judicial Performance Evaluation in the States

Judicial performance evaluation, one element of the O'Connor Judicial Selection Plan, exists in 17 states and the District of Columbia as an official program. Not all states with judicial performance evaluation adopt all four elements of the O'Connor Plan.

In 6 states, performance evaluation results are provided to voters for use in retention elections.

In 4 states and the District of Columbia, performance evaluation results are provided to those responsible for reappointing judges.

In 2 states, summary performance evaluation results (i.e., individual judges are not identified) are provided to the public to enhance confidence in the courts. 

In 5 states, performance evaluations are provided only to individual judges for the purpose of self-improvement.


Components of the O'Connor Judicial Selection Plan:

Judicial Nominating Commission

How It Works | States with Nominating Commissions

Gubernatorial Appointment

How It Works | States with Gubernatorial Appointment

Judicial Performance Evaluation

How It Works | States with Performance Evaluation

Retention Election

How It Works | States with Retention Elections