Judicial performance evaluation exists in 16 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as an official program. Not all states with judicial performance evaluation adopt all four elements of the O'Connor Judicial Selection Plan.
Read and download our Overview of Official Judicial Performance Evaluation Programs, and review state JPE program websites below.
In 6 states, performance evaluation results are provided to voters for use in retention elections.
In 4 states and the District of Columbia, performance evaluation results are provided to those responsible for reappointing judges.
In 2 states, summary performance evaluation results (i.e., individual judges are not identified) are provided to the public to enhance confidence in the courts.
In 4 states and Puerto Rico, performance evaluations are provided only to individual judges for the purpose of self-improvement.